Thomas Caldwell was a veteran in his 60s through a soft physique, oval glasses, no income, and also a history of mental illness. “I’ve been schizophrenic all my life, hearing voices,” he when said in a courtroom. He didn’t have actually a license to sell firearms, however that hadn’t quit him. In 2015, according to prosecutors, police discovered a Glock in a Milwaukee drug house and also quickly linked it to him. That purchased it only the day before.

Months later, an agent v the office of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) challenged Caldwell about the pistol. According to the ATF, he stated he had been purchasing guns from a licensed dealer, then reselling many of them v Armslist.com, a website that connects sellers v buyers in search of anything indigenous a pistol come an AR-15.

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If Caldwell wanted to market guns, the ATF warned him, there to be a proper means to do it. Without obtaining a federal guns license, he to be breaking the law and potentially putting weapons into the hands of criminals.

Caldwell no listen, and he regulated to rotate flipping guns into a an extensive business, prosecutors later on said. Between December 2015 and May 2018, he made cash deposits into his financial institution account totaling much more than $19,000, every from total sales. Even after his early stage run-in through authorities, he maintained up the exercise for years. In 2017, Madison police uncovered a Taurus 9mm pistol throughout an investigation, then traced it ago to a acquisition Caldwell had made two weeks before.

Eventually, the ATF found that 11 weapons recovered through police during investigations had been purchased by Caldwell. Due to the fact that the ATF’s 2015 warning, that bought 95 handguns and 11 rifles indigenous 57 different sellers. Caldwell posted an ext than 200 listings for guns on the website, according to prosecutors, sometimes explicitly noting the weapons were brand-new and unfired.


According to prosecutors, he had actually said that a license was “too much paperwork”

Officials believed the short “time to crime” — the gap in between a sale and also when that recovered at a crime scene — intended Caldwell had end up being a known source for criminals. A prosecutor would later say a tragedy to be “inevitable.” as the Chicago Tribune provided last year, authorities declined to to speak why he wasn’t charged much earlier.

Two years after he an initial came come the attention of the ATF, agents organized an undercover sting, to buy a Walther .40-caliber pistol indigenous Caldwell on Armslist. Yet while Caldwell was still under investigation, he offered a weapon top top Armslist and, months later, the gun somehow arrived in Chicago. Once it did, Police command Paul Bauer responded to a call in the Loop and also caught up through a suspect. In the struggle that followed, Bauer was shot 6 times and also killed with the gun.

Caldwell, follow to the ATF, described selling weapons as an addiction. Police executed a search warrant top top his home and also uncovered 44 firearms as they kept building their case. Owning a many of guns is not in itself a crime, and also undeterred, Caldwell sold another gun come an undercover investigator on Armslist a month later.

He pleaded guilty to illegally selling weapons in 2018, practically three year after an initial being warned through the ATF. According to prosecutors, he had actually said the a license was “too lot paperwork.”

Caldwell isn’t the only constant user of Armslist. End the years, the website has come to be a significant destination because that firearm buyers and sellers. The site can be supplied legally, and its terms of use explicitly direct users to monitor applicable firearms laws. Critics, however, to speak the site’s operators have actually taken a hands-off method to moderating the contents on your platform the fuels violence and allows private sellers to bypass acquiring a federal guns license.

Law enforcement deals with legal obstacles to policing rogue sellers favor Caldwell, yet the regulation has additionally put Armslist itself the end of reach. The exact same legal protections expected to aid the internet flourish have also ensured the guns keep flowing.

“To protect the good actors, you have to write a conventional that enables people to it is in pretty devastating actors too,” states James Grimmelmann, professor of regulation at Cornell University. “The challenge is how do you distinguish the an excellent from the destructive actors.”

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Under commonwealth law, the legal for people to sell weapons without a elevator check. It’s only once they end up being “engaged in the business” that selling guns that lock are required by legislation to achieve a license from the ATF and run check on every sale.

So when does selling weapons turn indigenous a hobby into a full-fledged company enterprise? It’s daunting to tell. One person might, for example, inherit dozens that antiques and also sell them without issue. But an additional person might buy a handful of weapons from a registered seller, flip them in private sales there is no conducting lift checks, and be deemed involved in the business.

Executive plot made during the second term the the Obama presidency were supposed to tighten the definition of “engaging in the business.” they state that those “who utilize the web or other technologies must achieve a license, just as a dealer whose service is run out that a classic brick-and-mortar store.” in ~ the time, critics argued that the actions to be “legally meaningless” and that they amounted to little much more than “political theater.”

“The president and also Congress regularly charge administrative agencies with an extremely broad and also ambitious tasks, and they rarely provide sufficient capital to actually lug them out,” said Timothy Lytton, a identified professor of regulation at Georgia State university who specialization in security regulation and gun violence.

The faint of federal legislation — and the fact it is rarely applied — leaves it open up to exploitation. And also Armslist is home to many sellers whose task falls in a gray area.

The Verge and The Trace scraped much more than 2 million Armslist listings indigenous December 2016 with March 2019 to recognize users who may be skirting the law through high-volume sales.


“If someone calls girlfriend up and says, ‘Hey, I’d prefer to buy a gun,’ you should be able to check if the person deserve to have a gun”

We searched the message of listings for phone numbers and isolated the numbers that showed up most frequently. Armslist motivates users to communicate through direct messages on the website, however some sellers may include direct contact information in their posts.

We identified an ext than 700 phone numbers that appeared in 10 or an ext listings. The many used phone call number belonged come a seller in southern Carolina that was associated with much more than 300 listings on Armslist throughout the period of time extended by ours scraping. (The user denied posting ads ~ above the site, however confirmed your phone number, i beg your pardon was included as call information on each ad.) Thirty-eight other phone numbers appeared in 50 or more posts ~ above the site.

To identify if sellers were licensed to conduct sales, we compared the call information in the ads against the publicly accessible list that federal weapons licenses, which has registered sellers’ names, addresses, and also phone numbers. Only 14 the the phone numbers attached come a high volume that ads appeared in the ATF’s database.

The Trace and The Verge called every phone number connected to 25 or more listings — nearly 150 in total. We spoke come 10 sellers altogether. None of those sellers stated they had actually a license to transaction firearms. Two recognized that they offered Armslist to turn a benefit on sales, if the remainder reported using the site mostly to offload firearms in their private collections. “Obviously if you gain something and also you know have the right to get an ext for it, you’re probably simply going to turn around and also sell the again,” one user said.

All that the customers we speak with claimed they vetted prospective buyers in part way, whether by analysis through the who online presence or simply obtaining a sense of the human being while negotiating a sale. Yet only a handful said they took customers to a licensed weapons dealer to perform a elevator check prior to making a sale.

One user native Florida, who phone number was associated to nearly 50 listings, said he no conduct background checks on sales. However he wished that there was an easy method to evaluation the history of a potential buyer. The user said that some people reaching out through Armslist didn’t happen a gut inspect for a firearm transfer.

“If someone calls friend up and says, ‘Hey, I’d like to buy a gun,’ you should be able to check if the person have the right to have a gun,” the Florida user said. “I want to it is in a responsible pistol owner.”

The number of posts from a user no necessarily complement the number of gun sales, and the device couldn’t account because that duplicate posts. However, for every user we spoke with, we shown that your phone numbers appeared in many non-duplicate articles on the site.

We explained our result to law enforcement public official to obtain a sense of even if it is this comprised evidence of sellers gift “engaged in the business.”


A man was judge of engaging in the business of selling guns without a license, while serving as an FBI agent

In a statement, one ATF spokesperson claimed the firm looks in ~ each instance to see “whether there is enough evidence that willful misconduct” come prove a violation. “The volume the sales is just one aspect in examining whether someone is unlawfully engaged in the business, particularly since federal law expressly permits individuals to offer their personal firearms collections without a license,” the spokesperson said. “Numerous extr factors, such together the will of the seller, have to be considered.”

To develop a case, prosecutors must demonstrate that a person was willfully acquisition illegal activity — that a seller knew what they were doing was wrong and also flouted the legislation anyway.

“People that break this regulation should be prosecuted,” claims Thomas Chittum, assistant director of field operations in ~ the ATF. “But it’s a an overwhelming law come prosecute because of the willfulness requirement and also because it’s an extremely fact-intensive, and also sometimes those truth aren’t conveniently available.”

Prosecutors have relied top top the volume of online listings as evidence in past cases. In 2010, a guy was convicted of engaging in the business of selling weapons without a license, when serving together an FBI agent. He had actually posted virtually 300 virtual gun ads over more than three years and collected an ext than $118,000 in firearm sales.

United says Attorney for the district of Minnesota Erica mcdonald s stifled laughter when asked even if it is prosecutors could want come scrutinize a seller who had actually posted thousands of listings. “Yeah,” she said.

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guns are sold online in many ways. Retailers like Bass pro Shops, Brownells, or BudsGunShop.com offer their guns through firm websites, but buyers pick up the weapons from license is granted dealers. Over there are also online marketplaces, favor GunBroker and GunsAmerica, where the websites straight participate in the transaction in some method and enable for firearm transfers to circulation through federal license holders. Then there are areas like Armslist that duty as an virtual classified section tailored to guns, and also all transactions room done peer to peer.

The idea for Armslist developed in the summer that 2007, when Jonathan Gibbon was a college student at the united state Air force Academy, that told the website Human Events. He experienced that Craigslist had actually banned gun listings and also thought he could step in to to fill the void. So he connected with his classmate Brian Mancini in ~ a 4th of July party and they put together a an easy version that the site.

Someone looking come offload a gun can put increase a listing ~ above Armslist in minutes and then just wait because that prospective buyers to with out. V a couple of clicks, sellers can say wherein they’re selling their gun, the make and build, how much the costs, and include one email resolve for queries. The procedure is as simple as purchase a chair on Craigslist. Countless of the users we speak with said the site’s simplicity is a big part that its draw.

When a the person who lives visits a listing, they have the right to learn virtually everything they’d desire to know around their new firearm. Increase top, over there are pictures of the gun from multiple angles, together with the manufacturer and caliber size. They just need to click on the “contact seller” switch to relocate forward and complete the sale. In part cases, sellers will include a an individual cell number.

“It connect firearm owners and also enthusiasts, helping world to find deals ~ above firearms and gear in their neighborhood area,” Gibbon told Human Events in 2010. “Imagine a gun present that never ends, however you need an internet connection.”


Looking for a pistol? device gun and silencer? Rocket launcher? Armslist users room willing to offer you one.

Since that founding, Armslist has actually gone on to end up being one the the most popular gun advertising websites. The site offers nearly any kind of total you might imagine. In search of a pistol? maker gun and also silencer? Rocket launcher? Armslist users space willing to offer you one.

Once you discover what you looking for, just call the seller and also arrange a meetup to end up the transaction. The transfer deserve to take ar in a pistol store, home, or parking lot. There room no rules on where the handover requirements to happen, as long as the timing functions for both parties. The process is flexible sufficient for also the busiest digital gun buyer.

The company has additionally become notorious for giving firearm accessibility to people prohibited native owning guns. In a record published in 2019, researchers v the university of Minnesota scraped much more than 4.9 million Armslist listings native the website and found that much less than 10 percent discussed a lift check.

In 2011, Demetry Smirnov, a Russian immigrant life in Canda, illegal purchased a handgun ~ above Armslist and later used it to killing a woman who spurned his romantic advances. Mohammod Youssuf Abdulazeez, a naturalized united state citizen who became a radicalized jihadist, provided weapons got through Armslist come kill 5 US company members in Chattanooga, Tennessee in 2015. In 2018, a woman who supplied Armslist come traffic weapons was sentenced come 18 months in prison, but before her sentencing, one of her former weapons was supplied to shoot a police officer in Boston. And also last year, commonwealth prosecutors lugged a case against an Alabama resident that admitted come trafficking firearms acquired with Armslist to new York, California, and Mexico, after the watched a documentary movie on gun trafficking in 2016.

Gun offering that bypasses the background inspect system through exclusive transactions is frequently called the gun show loophole — in this case, the gun present just happens to it is in online. Over there are just a couple of restrictions: if the seller believes the the gun might be going to a human who is prohibited from owning a firearm or is from outside of their state, they can not legally make the sale.

There are no regulations that explicitly target the sale of weapons over the internet, and also all virtual sales are claimed to be hosted to the very same legal requirements as sales that happen at physical locations. Machine guns, silencers, and also other firearms and also accessories regulation under the National weapons Act call for fingerprinting and also registration through the ATF. Licensed federal weapons dealers are forced to carry out background checks and also maintain records of pistol sales.

Advocates and the US federal government have been researching the revenue of firearms and gun accessories with Armslist and also other digital websites because that years, but little has readjusted in terms of how they operate. In February 2019, the advocacy group Everytown because that Gun security contacted 150 sellers ~ above Armslist come buy weapons undercover. An ext than 65 percent of these sellers suggested that they would not require a background examine to complete the sale. (Everytown’s charitable arm provides resources to The Trace.)

When the ATF find someone it believes to be illegally marketing guns, the company might, in lieu of immediate prosecution, send a warning letter demanding the human being stop selling. A warning letter can lay the groundwork for a situation showing a doubt knew what they to be doing was over the line, Chittum says. The can additionally act together a deterrent for illegal gun sellers, when prosecutors can’t take it every case.


Lytton says that warning letters space a typically used tactic throughout regulatory bodies, and also are a low-cost tool to enforce commonwealth standards, which have the right to be especially beneficial if the firm doesn’t have actually the resources to mount a full investigation. Yet they have an noticeable drawback: the addressee may pick to overlook them.

Around 2014, in one situation in Minnesota, a guy named Eitan Feldman began buying and also reselling guns, frequently purchasing them indigenous a registered dealer and also then flipping them on Armslist, according to prosecutors. Weapons he’d offered started turning up at crime scenes: police stated they linked shots fired at a Minneapolis home to a pistol Feldman had actually bought a main earlier, and also during a marijuana smuggling investigation, recovered a revolver Feldman had bought 3 months before. The ATF executed a find warrant on his house, recognize shotguns that Feldman had legally purchased and also then posted because that sale ~ above Armslist, occasionally within job of buying them.

In 2015, ATF agents personally handed Feldman a created warning saying he showed up to it is in a “dealer in firearms” under the law and also informed him that he could face criminal start if he continued. Still, he retained selling guns, flipping 6 semi-automatic pistols and also a semi-automatic rifle end the next couple of months, according to court records. “The truth that he maintained doing it after gaining a letter indigenous ATF was kind of a head scratcher,” says Assistant us Attorney for the ar of Minnesota Benjamin Bejar, that prosecuted the case.

Feldman was ultimately charged v illegally offering firearms. “Most defendants whom ns sentence have actually not had the courtesy of having actually the federal federal government hand them a composed warning and also give castle a opportunity to stop,” the judge said throughout the hearing. He was sentenced to 18 months’ imprisonment in 2016.

But whether illegal sellers room warned or not, the aftermath can it is in devastating.

Christopher Henderson and John Phillips, according to court records, do a company out the buying weapons in the South, wherein gun limitations are loose, and then reselling them up north. The 2 would buy indigenous sellers top top Armslist in Kentucky, rolling through the state in a white dodge Challenger, then journey them back to Chicago. A broker working through Henderson and also Phillips would certainly then resell the weapons, often on Facebook. Soon after, the firearms would revolve up in ~ crime scenes.

In 2017, around nine miles away from where Commander Paul Bauer to be killed, a 15-year-old boy called Xavier Soto to be murdered. Prosecutors later linked the gun supplied in the killing — a Taurus pistol — come a purchase Henderson made through Armslist.

Both the the guys were sentenced because that illegal sales. In ~ Henderson’s sentencing, Soto’s sister offered an emotional account of she brother’s brief life.

“Our resides will never be the same,” she called the court with tears. “These alleged people supplied a weapon the was offered to murder a 15-year-old boy.”

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once she dialed 911 ~ an attack in October 2012, Zina Daniel Haughton stated her husband, Radcliffe Haughton, had actually been violent for years. Police took she to a vacation Inn because that the night, her family members later said in court papers, but he proved up in ~ her job-related the following day with a knife and also slashed the tires of her car.

Zina soon asked for a restraining order against Radcliffe. She described to a Wisconsin court: he had actually an explosive temper, threaten to throw acid on she face. “I don’t desire to die,” she claimed in a hearing. The judge granted the restraining order, i m sorry barred her husband native owning a gun.

Two work after her testimony, Radcliffe Haughton found and purchased a semi-automatic handgun ~ above Armslist indigenous a personal seller that didn’t operation a elevator check. Haughton made the buy native the front seat of the seller’s car, according to the family, in a McDonald’s parking lot. The next day, he entered the suburban Milwaukee salon whereby Zina worked and opened fire. He killed three people, consisting of Zina, before transforming the gun on himself.

In the aftermath, Armslist challenged questions around its role. Had actually the company effectively helped with a massive shooting? Yasmeen Daniel, Zina’s daughter, to be at the spa when her mom was killed, and filed suit versus Armslist in 2015, suggesting that the shooting could’ve to be stopped.

But the same legislation that shields significant social media companies favor Facebook indigenous liability for terrorist content developed by your users likewise protects Armslist native being sued when bad actors usage their platform. Section 230 of the interactions Decency action is widely viewed as the law that do the modern internet possible, paving the method for web forums, social media, and also much more.


The plot protects website operators from being sue over what their individuals post. If who writes a defamatory tweet, for example, the human being being defamed can not sue Twitter because that letting it happen.

”If you forced a patent for each tweet that gets posted, that would make Twitter impossible,” states Grimmelmann, the Cornell professor. “It doesn’t do firearm sales impossible.”

Armslist relied on section 230 for its defense in the Daniel case. The this firm lawyers said that the website can not be organized liable for unlawful sales. “Under this theory, Armslist might go in, look in ~ an ad, and also say, ‘Oh, it’s an ad from the same seller who illegally sold 10 weapons in the instance that was well known last year, and wow, it looks choose this advertisement is illegal,’” Grimmelmann says. ‘“We don’t care. We’re not going come touch it.’”

The lawsuit’s respond to argument to be straightforward: Armslist wasn’t just a bystander on the sidelines when sales happened, but a participant. The architecture of the site, the fit argued, permitted buyers to search specifically for sellers who wouldn’t do a elevator check, giving civilization who were barred native owning firearms an easy means to purchase one. The suit stated the website relied ~ above a business model the “put weapons in the hands of banned purchasers.”

The Daniel family’s suit has faced mixed judgments indigenous the courts. ~ one court dismissed the suit, an appeals court reversed the decision, enabling it to proceed. A second appeal, this time native Armslist, elevated the situation to Wisconsin’s can be fried Court, which made decision that Armslist was safeguarded under the interactions Decency Act. Many recently, in November of critical year, the supreme Court of the US declined to hear the case, leaving in location the Wisconsin supreme Court’s ruling.

The intersection of web speech law and gun legal rights policy has actually scrambled part usual politics divides. After ~ the Wisconsin can be fried Court decision, the Cato Institute, a libertarian think tank, said that transforms to 230 would cause “real and permanent” damage to the second Amendment. The nonprofit electronic Frontier Foundation, which suggests for civil rights online, filed a brief in the case in donate of Armslist, suggesting that finding the website liable would certainly “severely curtail complimentary expression online.”

The short put the non-profit at odds with teams like the nonprofit Cyber Civil civil liberties Initiative, which says that the legislation was expected to protect good Samaritans, no to give cover come anyone that runs a website through third-party task regardless the the consequences.


“The reality that Armslist is still in company after every the lawsuits it’s challenged is quite remarkable”

The Wisconsin can be fried Court disagreed, note in that decision that Armslist can not be held responsible even if that knew its site would be supplied to break the law. So long as a website deserve to be provided for legitimate purposes, it didn’t matter that it was offered for illegal activity, too.

Seen indigenous one angle, the fight over Armslist looks favor a microcosm that the larger war end Silicon sink power and also accountability. Should Facebook, because that example, face consequences for failing to fact-check political ads? Both Republicans and Democrats have actually taken target at section 230 recently, worried around the vast legal shield it gives the tech industry.

Eric Goldman, a professor at the Santa Clara University institution of law who has actually written around the services of 230, said the court that ruled against Armslist “just type of went turn off the rails,” and also he says that chipping away at protections in the regulation will bring about legal difficulties for smaller sized sites.

”The crucial point of section 230 was the Congress wanted sites to have the flexibility to shot and police against bad content, and also not are afraid that they would be liable because that anything castle miss,” Goldman says. “If they’re hosted to a 100 percent standard, then they wouldn’t carry out it at all.”

Some world might want to watch Armslist go, the says, however other sites will also lose legit protections without 230. “The reality that Armslist is quiet in service after every the lawsuits it’s challenged is pretty remarkable,” he says. “Without ar 230 castle would’ve to be gone a lengthy time ago.”

The strength of the regulation isn’t limitless, however. Federal prosecutors can shut under the website and also indict its owner under criminal fees if they thought the legislation was broken.

”One of the conventional tropes in the field is that section 230 create a lawless zone,” Goldman says. “Anyone who says that is factually wrong. Section 230 does no restrict federal criminal prosecutions.”

But Mary anne Franks, chairman of the Cyber Civil civil liberties Initiative, claims the legislation has properly given a distinct legal shield to online activity that i will not ~ be defended in physical space. “If it i will not ~ be decided if it to be offline, it do not do it be speech if that online,” she argues.

”Punching somebody in the challenge is no speech, also though it could be really expressive,” she says. “What ar 230 has actually done is seduce courts into not make that type of analysis. Instead, castle assume the if the happening virtual then that speech, and also then they walk to the following step.”

Franks questions whether the stakes have truly hit home for defenders that a large interpretation the the statute. “We have actually a case in Armslist i m sorry is yes, really a question of life or death, and also they don’t seem to think that that’s relevant,” she says.

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after ~ pleading guilty because that illegally selling guns on Armslist, thomas Caldwell had his sentencing listening in November 2018. If he confronted charges for illegal gun sales, the killing of command Paul Bauer loomed over the proceedings. Caldwell’s defense team pleaded because that probation, saying Caldwell had been v enough: his “digital heritage will affix him forever” with the murdered officer, his attorneys created to the court.

The beginning disagreed, and also pushed for jail time. A prosecutor said the judge the Caldwell had actually disregarded a warning native the ATF. They essential to do clear the was unacceptable. “Next time an ATF agent delivers one of those warning letters, I desire them likewise to have the ability to be in the place to supply a story. ‘Look what happened to cutting board Caldwell,’” the prosecutor said. To add emotion to your argument, the prosecution dubbed for the testimony the someone that knew Bauer well: Northeastern Illinois college Police Chief man Escalante.

Escalante prospered up v Bauer from the age of seven. The two went to the same grade school, the exact same college, and then join the Chicago Police room together. Escalante always thought Bauer to be the responsible one. In college, Bauer to be the significant student, Escalante said, while he to be “a tiny bit an ext of a partier” and was “politely asked” no to return after 2 years. However as happy would have actually it, in 1986, they entered the police department in ~ one month of each other. “We invested the following 30 year chasing every other approximately the roads of Chicago as Chicago police officers,” that said.

Escalante remembered obtaining the speak to from an officer that knew top top the force. That told Escalante that he must sit down, and delivered the news that Bauer had been shot.

When Escalante learned the the gun had actually made its method from Wisconsin to Chicago through Armslist, he wasn’t surprised. Escalante climbed through the ranks of the Chicago Police Department and also was, for a time, the interim superintendent. He’d checked out the toy fee of illegal total sales on the city. “It’s happened too numerous times and also now it occurred to my great friend Paul and also it do not do it have,” the said.

At Caldwell’s sentencing, Escalante said he to be looking earlier at “every text, every email” through Bauer because that moments the made the laugh. That didn’t mention Armslist, but focused top top “accountability,” and also “those that put the firearms into the hand of those the commit the violence.”

Escalante stated that the struggled come say Bauer had actually died. “You die of old age, you dice of sickness, you dice from accidents, however when who fires many rounds into your body, that’s no dying,” he told the court, “that’s a murder.”

This story was released in partnership through The Trace, a non-profit newsroom spanning gun violence.

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Update, 2:30PM ET, January 17th: In a explain sent complying with publication, an attorney because that Armslist stated “courts have actually consistently ruled that Armslist.com drops squarely within the ‘safe harbor’ of section 230” and also that the firm both “fully complies” through all laws and regularly assists law enforcement. “The gist that the opposition come Armslist lies in opposition to the private ownership of firearms,” the declare said.