The activist to be much much more than a woman who when refused to cede she seat ~ above a segregated bus, together she spent decades fighting for polite rights.

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Rosa Parks is best known for refusing to give up she seat on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1955, which sparked a yearlong boycott that was a turning point in the civil rights movement. However, there to be much more to Parks' life. Born in Alabama in 1913, she prospered up in a segregated human being that continually exposed she to discrimination. Before her defiant plot on the bus, she'd currently fought back against injustice by involvement the nationwide Association because that the breakthrough of fancy People (NAACP) and also investigating crime committed against Black people.

After the bus boycott, Parks ongoing to take part in the civil civil liberties movement. She to visit the march on Washington in 1963 and also in 1965 saw the signing the the Voting legal rights Act. Her later years observed Parks' work known with the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional gold Medal.

The complying with timeline consists notable occasions and success in Parks' long and remarkable life:

February 4, 1913: Rosa Louise McCauley born in Tuskegee, Alabama to James and Leona McCauley 

1919: A six-year-old Parks starts picking noodle alongside her grandparents. She also starts attending a segregated school in pine tree Level, Alabama.

1924: as there is no neighborhood school because that Black children to to visit after the 6th grade, McCauley go to miss out on White’s Montgomery industrial School because that Girls in Montgomery, Alabama.

1929: Parks leaves school in the 11th great to treatment for she ill grandmother and also mother.

1931: if Parks is working as a housekeeper for a white family, a white neighbor attempts to rape her.

1931: Parks is presented to Raymond Parks, whom she later explained as being the an initial activist she encountered.

December 18, 1932: Rosa weds Raymond Parks


A photo of Raymond Parks

Photo: Matt McClain/ The Washington post via Getty Images

1933: Parks return to school and obtains she high institution diploma, a notable achievement at a time when very couple of Black world in Alabama organized this degree.

1941: Parks starts job-related at Maxwell Air force Base, which has actually an incorporated cafeteria and trolley system.

December 1943: Parks joins the Montgomery branch the the NAACP

As the only woman in ~ her first meeting, she is named secretary that the group. Parks' work for the NAACP will also include investigate crimes against Black human being such together murder, assaults and police brutality.  

Parks attempts to it is registered to vote but is called she fail the proficiency test compelled of black color voters.

September 1944: Recy Taylor, a black woman, is gang-raped by six white men. The Montgomery NAACP dispatches Parks to investigate the case.  

Parks helps establish the Committee for same Justice because that the rights of Mrs. Recy Taylor to support for legal action against Taylor's assailants. The situation becomes nationwide news yet the rapists are never ever convicted.


Recy Taylor

Photo: ©HBO Documentary Films/Courtesy Everett Collection

1945: After acquisition the forced literacy test because that a 3rd time, Parks i do not care a registered voter. Yet prior to she can actors a ballot, she should pay a retroactive poll taxation of $1.50 because that every year due to the fact that she got to the voting age of 21.

1948: Parks becomes the Alabama state secretary because that the NAACP.

1949: Parks steps ago as NAACP secretary come take care of she mother.

1952: Parks returns to the Montgomery NAACP and once much more becomes a branch secretary.

August 1955: Parks attends a two-week maintain session in ~ the Highlander people School in Tennessee. Alongside various other civil legal rights activists, both Black and white, she discusses exactly how to combine schools adhering to the can be fried Court's Brown v. Plank of Education decision that 1954.

December 1, 1955: In Montgomery, Parks defies a bus driver's order to let a white male take she seat

The driver, who had actually treated Parks rudely and also evicted she from his bus in 1943, contact the police and she is arrested.


Fingerprint map for Rosa Parks

Photo: Universal history Archive/Getty Images

December 5, 1955: though Parks was no the an initial Black mrs arrested because that defying distinction on city buses, news that her case spurs the Black neighborhood to begin a boycott of Montgomery buses.

Parks' trial bring away place. She is found guilty and also fined $10, add to $4 in court costs. Her lawyers paper an appeal.

January 7, 1956: Parks is let walk from her task as a tailor's assistant at the Montgomery Fair department store.

January 1956: Raymond quits his barbershop job after discussion of his wife and the boycott is forbidden.

February 21, 1956: Along through dozens of other civil legal rights leaders, consisting of Martin Luther King Jr., Parks is indicted because that violating a Montgomery law outlawing boycotts.

February 22, 1956: Parks is amongst a team of indicted boycott leaders who present themselves for arrest. She is conveniently released. The case against Parks is ultimately dismissed.

1956: throughout the boycott, Parks serves as a dispatcher to coordinate carpools. She additionally travels throughout the nation to speak about the boycott.

December 21, 1956: Following a supreme Court judgment that segregated buses space unconstitutional, the 381-day boycott ends. Parks is photographed sit at the front of a bus because that Look magazine.


Rosa Parks sit in the prior of a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, after ~ the can be fried Court rule segregation illegal on the city bus system on December 21, 1956. The male sitting behind Parks is Nicholas C. Chriss, a reporter for united Press worldwide out of Atlanta.

Photo: Getty Images

August 1957: unable to uncover work in Montgomery and also still encountering threats for her duty in the bus boycott, Parks and her family depart for Detroit

October 1957: Parks becomes a hostess in ~ the Holly Tree Inn, part of the Hampton academy in Virginia, but leaves after the loss semester in 1958 come rejoin she husband and mother in Detroit.

1959: Parks starts doing piecework for Detroit's Stockton Sewing Company, a job she holds through 1964.

July 1960: A Jet magazine short article reveals the Parks and also her household have to be struggling financially, due in part to her wellness problems.

August 28, 1963: Parks attends the in march on Washington because that Jobs and also Freedom. No women are invited to speak in ~ the event, however Parks is among those singled the end for a "Tribute to Women" in the civil rights movement.

March 1, 1965: Parks bring away a project in the Detroit office of newly chosen Congressman john Conyers, whereby her tasks encompass answering phones and aiding constituents. She stays in this place until she retirement in 1988.

March 25, 1965: Parks join the march come Montgomery for equal voting rights. Plenty of of the marchers perform not identify her yet in the end she is acknowledged and invited to speak at the capitol building.

August 6, 1965: Parks is amongst those existing to angry President lindon Johnson's signing of the Voting civil liberties Act.

July 23, 1967: Parks is in Detroit throughout five days of rioting. Between the upheaval, her husband's barbershop is destroyed.

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August 30, 1967: A "People's Tribunal" is held concerning the deaths of three young black color men during the Detroit riots. Parks serves on the jury, which find the police that were in ~ the step guilty (the officers confronted no such effects in the legal system).