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Born:May 6, 1856Czechoslovakia...(Show more)Died:September 23, 1939 (aged 83)LondonEngland...(Show more)Founder:psychoanalysis...(Show more)Subjects of Study:MosesOedipus complexinfancydefense mechanismprimitive culture...(Show more)

After graduating (1873) from second school in Vienna, Sigmund Freud gone into the clinical school that the university of Vienna, concentrating on physiology and also neurology; he obtained a medical level in 1881. He trained (1882–85) together a clinical assistant in ~ the basic Hospital in Vienna and studied (1885–86) in Paris under neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot.


Sigmund Freud died of a lethal dose of morphine administered in ~ his request by his friend and physician Max Schur. Freud had actually been suffering agonizing pain caused by an inoperable cancer tumour in his eye socket and also cheek. The cancer had begun as a lesion in his mouth the he uncovered in 1923.


Sigmund Freud’s voluminous writings included The interpretation of Dreams (1899/1900), The Psychopathology of everyday Life (1904), Totem and also Taboo (1913), and also Civilization and also Its Discontents (1930).


Freud is renowned for inventing and also developing the an approach of psychoanalysis; because that articulating the psychoanalytic theory of motivation, psychological illness, and the framework of the subconscious; and for affecting scientific and also popular conceptions of human being nature by positing that both normal and abnormal thought and behaviour are guided by irrational and also largely covert forces.


Sigmund Freud, (born may 6, 1856, Freiberg, Moravia, Austrian realm —died September 23, 1939, London, England), Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis. Freud’s write-up on psychoanalysis appeared in the 13th execution of the Encyclopædia glossesweb.com.

Freud might justly be dubbed the most influential intellectual legislator that his age. His production of psychoanalysis to be at as soon as a theory of the human psyche, a treatment for the relief that its ills, and an optic for the translate of society and society. In spite of repeated criticisms, attempted refutations, and qualifications the Freud’s work, its order remained an effective well after ~ his death and also in fields far removed native psychology as it is narrowly defined. If, as the American sociologist Philip Rieff once contended, “psychological man” changed such previously notions as political, religious, or economic man as the 20th century’s dominant self-image, that is in no tiny measure as result of the power of Freud’s vision and also the seeming inexhaustibility of the intellectual legacy he left behind.

Early life and training

Freud’s father, Jakob, was a Jewish wool merchant who had actually been married once before he wed the boy’s mother, Amalie Nathansohn. The father, 40 year old at Freud’s birth, appears to have actually been a relatively remote and authoritarian figure, while his mother appears to have actually been more nurturant and also emotionally available. Although Freud had two older half-brothers, his the strongest if additionally most ambivalent attachment seems to have been come a nephew, John, one year his senior, who provided the model of intimate friend and also hated rival the Freud reproduced regularly at later on stages the his life.

In 1859 the Freud family was compelled for financial reasons to relocate to Leipzig and then a year after come Vienna, whereby Freud continued to be until the Nazi annexation of Austria 78 year later. Regardless of Freud’s dislike the the royal city, in part because the its citizens’ frequent anti-Semitism, psychoanalysis reflected in significant ways the social and political context out of which that emerged. For example, Freud’s sensitivity come the vulnerability of paternal authority in ~ the psyche may well have actually been stimulated by the decrease in power endured by his father’s generation, often liberal rationalists, in the Habsburg empire. So as well his interest in the theme of the seduction that daughters to be rooted in complex ways in the paper definition of Viennese mindsets toward female sexuality.


In 1873 Freud was i graduated from the Sperl Gymnasium and, apparently inspired by a public analysis of an essay by Goethe top top nature, rotate to medicine as a career. In ~ the college of Vienna he operated with one of the top physiologists that his day, ernst von Brücke, an exponent the the materialist, antivitalist science of Hermann von Helmholtz. In 1882 he entered the basic Hospital in Vienna together a clinical assistant to train with the psychiatrist Theodor Meynert and also the professor of interior medicine Hermann Nothnagel. In 1885 Freud was appointed lecturer in neuropathology, having concluded necessary research top top the brain’s medulla. At this time he also developed an attention in the pharmaceutical services of cocaine, which he sought for several years. Back some valuable results were found in eye surgery, which have been credited to Freud’s friend Carl Koller, the general outcome was disastrous. Not just did Freud’s advocacy result in a mortal addiction in one more close friend, serious Fleischl von Marxow, yet it additionally tarnished his clinical reputation for a time. Even if it is or not one interprets this episode in state that contact into concern Freud’s prudence together a scientist, it to be of a piece with his lifelong willingness to attempt bold remedies to relieve human suffering.

Freud’s scientific training remained of cardinal importance in his work, or at the very least in his own conception that it. In such works as his “Entwurf einer Psychologie” (written 1895, published 1950; “Project because that a scientific Psychology”) the affirmed his intention to find a physiological and also materialist basis for his theories of the psyche. Below a mechanistic neurophysiological version vied v a more organismic, phylogenetic one in methods that show Freud’s facility debt come the science of his day.

In late 1885 Freud left Vienna to continue his researches of neuropathology at the Salpêtrière clinic in Paris, where he functioned under the accuse of Jean-Martin Charcot. His 19 weeks in the French capital proved a turning point in his career, for Charcot’s job-related with patients classified together “hysterics” presented Freud to the opportunity that mental disorders can have their resource in the mind fairly than the brain. Charcot’s demonstrate of a link between hysterical symptoms, such together paralysis of a limb, and hypnotic pointer implied the power of mental states rather than nerves in the etiology that disease. Return Freud was shortly to abandon his confidence in hypnosis, he went back to Vienna in February 1886 with the seed of his revolutionary psychological technique implanted.

Several months after his return Freud married Martha Bernays, the daughter that a prominent Jewish family whose ancestors included a chief rabbi the Hamburg and also Heinrich Heine. She was to bear six children, one of whom, Anna Freud, to be to end up being a distinguished psychoanalyst in her own right. Although the glowing snapshot of their marriage painted by Ernest Jones in his study The Life and Works the Sigmund Freud (1953–57) has been nuanced by later scholars, that is clear the Martha Bernays Freud to be a deeply sustaining presence during her husband’s blatant career.

Shortly after acquiring married Freud started his closest friendship, with the Berlin medical professional Wilhelm Fliess, whose function in the breakthrough of psychoanalysis has actually occasioned extensive debate. Throughout the 15 years of their intimacy Fliess noted Freud one invaluable interlocutor because that his most daring ideas. Freud’s id in human being bisexuality, his idea that erotogenic zones on the body, and also perhaps even his imputation the sexuality to babies may well have actually been stimulated by your friendship.

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A somewhat much less controversial influence occurred from the partnership Freud began with the medical professional Josef Breuer after his return indigenous Paris. Freud turned come a clinical practice in neuropsychology, and the office he established at Berggasse 19 to be to stay his consulting room for almost fifty percent a century. Prior to their participation began, during the early 1880s, Breuer had actually treated a patient called Bertha Pappenheim—or “Anna O.,” as she ended up being known in the literature—who was experiencing from a selection of hysterical symptoms. Fairly than utilizing hypnotic suggestion, as had Charcot, Breuer enabled her to lapse into a state resembling autohypnosis, in which she would talk about the early stage manifestations of her symptoms. Come Breuer’s surprise, the really act the verbalization appeared to carry out some relief indigenous their hold over she (although later scholarship has actors doubt ~ above its permanence). “The talking cure” or “chimney sweeping,” as Breuer and Anna O., respectively, referred to as it, appeared to action cathartically to produce an abreaction, or discharge, of the pent-up emotional blockage in ~ the root of the pathological behaviour.