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The roadway to Civil rights iBook takes readers on a trip through one of the most far-ranging periods in America’s history. Travel with the timeline and also listen to members of the American Academy of accomplishment as they talk about the an essential events the shaped the future of the country.

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Dr. Boy name Luther King, Jr. And Rosa Parks in Montgomery, Alabama throughout the 1955 bus boycott. The Montgomery Bus Boycott to be a seminal event in the Civil civil liberties Movement and was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the general public transit mechanism of Montgomery, Alabama. (National Archives)

Rosa Parks to be born Rosa Louise McCauley in Tuskegee, Alabama come James McCauley, a carpenter, and Leona McCauley, a teacher. In ~ the period of two she moved to her grandparents’ farm in jaw Level, Alabama v her mother and also younger brother, Sylvester. At the period of 11 she enrolled in the Montgomery commercial School because that Girls, a private school started by liberal-minded women from the north United States.

Rosa Parks booking photo complying with her February 1956 arrest during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. She refused to yield she seat to a white man on a Montgomery bus. She was arrested and fined. The boycott of publicly buses by blacks, started on the job of Parks’s court hearing and also lasted 381 days. (© Alabama room of Archives)

The school’s approach of self-worth was regular with Leona McCauley’s advice come “take benefit of the opportunities, no issue how couple of they were.” avenues were couple of indeed. “Back then,” Mrs. Parks recalled in one interview, “we didn’t have any type of civil rights. That was simply a matter of survival, of existing from one day to the next. Ns remember going come sleep together a girl hear the Klan ride at night and hearing a lynching and also being afraid the house would burn down.” In the very same interview, she cited she lifelong acquaintance with fear as the reason for her loved one fearlessness in deciding come appeal her conviction throughout the bus boycott. “I didn’t have any type of special fear,” she said. “It was more of a relief to know that ns wasn’t alone.” after ~ attending Alabama State teachers College, the young Rosa settled in Montgomery, with her husband, Raymond Parks. The couple joined the neighborhood chapter of the NAACP and worked quiet for countless years to enhance the many African american in the segregated South.

Rosa Parks speaks v an interviewer together she come at court through Reverend Edward Nixon and also 91 various other African americans on trial because that violation of a 1921 anti-boycott law. Lock were part of a city-wide boycott that buses by afri Americans ignited by Rosa Parks’ arrest for violation the the “Jim Crow” regulation forbidding afri Americans native sitting with whites in ~ the front of city buses. In June of 1956, a three-judge U.S. Ar Court dashboard ruled that segregation ~ above Alabama’s intrastate buses was unconstitutional, citing Brown v. Plank of Education as precedent for the verdict. In November, the U.S. Can be fried Court affirmed the ar Court’s decision. Top top December 17, 1956, the United claims Supreme Court garbage city and state appeals come reconsider your decision, and soon thereafter the bespeak for combined buses arrived in Montgomery. 3 days later, the Montgomery Bus Boycott concluded.

“I functioned on numerous cases with the NAACP,” Mrs. Parks recalled, “but us did not gain the publicity. There were instances of flogging, peonage, murder, and also rape. Us didn’t it seems to be ~ to have actually too plenty of successes. That was much more a issue of do the efforts to an obstacle the powers that be, and also to let it be known that we did not wish to proceed being second-class citizens.”

1965: Rosa Parks seated in the former of a windy bus representing the finish of segregated buses and also her duty in the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Sparked by the arrest the Rosa Parks top top December 1, 1955, the 13-month mass protest ended with the U.S. Supreme Court judgment that segregation on public buses is unconstitutional. (J. Maschhoff)

The bus incident led to the formation of the Montgomery development Association, led by the young pastor of the Dexter avenue Baptist Church, Dr. Boy name Luther King, Jr. The association referred to as for a boycott of the city-owned bus company. The boycott it is long 381 days and brought Mrs. Parks, Dr. King, and their cause to the fist of the world. A can be fried Court decision struck down the Montgomery ordinance under i beg your pardon Mrs. Parks had actually been fined, and outlawed racial segregation on publicly transportation.

Rosa Parks in ~ the Selma to Montgomery Civil legal rights Marches. The Selma come Montgomery Civil legal rights Marches developed in 1965 and also were significant by violent assaults on the marchers through state and also local police. (Steve Schapiro)

In 1957, Mrs. Parks and her husband relocated to Detroit, Michigan, where Mrs. Parks offered on the employee of U.S. Representative man Conyers. The southerly Christian management Council developed an yearly Rosa Parks liberty Award in she honor.

1996: Rosa Parks and also longtime assistant, Elaine Steele, at Academy of program in sun Valley, Idaho.

After the death of her husband in 1977, Mrs. Parks started the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development. The institute sponsors an annual summer program for adolescents called Pathways come Freedom. The young people tour the nation in buses, under adult supervision, learning the background of their country and also of the civil legal rights movement. President Clinton presented Rosa Parks through the Presidential Medal of flexibility in 1996. She obtained a Congressional gold Medal in 1999.

June 15, 1999: Rosa Parks as soon as she to be presented with the Congressional gold Medal by President invoice Clinton.

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When asked if she to be happy living in retirement, Rosa Parks replied, “I carry out the really best I can to look at upon life with optimism and also hope and looking front to a much better day, but I don’t think over there is any type of such thing as finish happiness. The pains me that there is still a most Klan activity and racism. I think when you say you’re happy, friend have whatever that you need and everything that you want, and nothing much more to wish for. Ns haven’t reached that stage yet.”

Mrs. Parks invested her critical years living quiet in Detroit, whereby she died in 2005 at the age of 92. After her death, she casket was put in the rotunda that the United says Capitol for two days, so the country could pay its respects to the woman whose vessel had changed the stays of for this reason many. She was the first woman and also the second African American to lie in respect at the Capitol, a distinction usually scheduled for Presidents of the united States.