Javelin is a portable anti-tank weapon, made by the Raytheon / Lockheed martin Javelin joint venture (JV) that is shoulder-fired but can likewise be set up on tracked, rolled or amphibious vehicles.

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Javelin missile is arisen by Raytheon and Lockheed martin Javelin share venture. Credit: Lockheed Martin.
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Javelin is a portable anti-tank weapon, produced by the Raytheon / Lockheed young name Javelin joint undertaking (JV) the is shoulder-fired yet can likewise be set up on tracked, rolled or amphibious vehicles.

Raytheon is responsible for the command start unit (CLU), missile guidance digital unit, system software and system design management. Lockheed boy name is responsible for the missile seeker, engineering and assembly.

Javelin has been deployed generally in Afghanistan and Iraq because that combat missions. The total number of orders that the missile is an ext than 45,000 and also it is intended to it is in operational through the united state until 2050.

The JV completed the very first production Javelin F-Model (FGM-148F) missile, which attributes a multi-purpose warhead, in may 2020.

Javelin portable anti-tank missile development

In 1989, the US army awarded a contract for the development of Javelin together a replacement for the M47 Dragon anti-tank missile. The Javelin joint endeavor was developed by Texas instruments (now Raytheon Missile Systems) that Dallas, Texas, and Lockheed boy name Electronics and Missiles (now Missiles and also Fire Control), that Orlando, Florida, US.

The Javelin gotten in full-rate manufacturing in 1994 and the mechanism was very first deployed in June 1996 by the US military at ft Benning, Georgia.

The Javelin device saw operational organization with the us army and also Marine Corps, as well as the Australian one-of-a-kind Forces throughout Operation Iraqi freedom in 2003 and also is at this time deployed in Afghanistan. The CLU is likewise being provided in surveillance operations. The standalone mode usage of the CLU was verified to be reliable in target detection and also battlefield reconnaissance once it to be deployed in Afghanistan and also Iraq. More than 2,000 rounds have actually been fired by the US and coalition forces.

The missile achieved a higher range that 4,750m during a demonstrate in February 2013. 5 Javelins were effectively fired as part of the share exercise, referred to as Yudh Abhyas, in between the Indian and US armies in June 2013. A Javelin missile was properly test-fired indigenous a turret at Cranfield Ordnance Test and also Evaluation center (COTEC) in might 2014.

The Javelin JV demonstrated the launch of a missile native a rolled vehicle’s remote weapon station in July 2014.

The Javelin missile to be fired from a Titan unmanned ground car using Kongsberg far launcher in September 2019.

Javelin because that light forces anti-tank guided weapon device (LFATGWS)

In January 2003, the UK ministry of Defence announced that it had made decision to procure Javelin because that the light pressures anti-tank guided weapon mechanism (LFATGWS) requirement. The initial order to be for 18 launchers and also 144 missiles. Javelin replaced the Milan system and entered business with the British military in July 2005.

Javelin equips the army’s fast reaction forces, consisting of 16 air assault brigades, three commando brigades and mechanised infantry. BAE Systems and also a variety of other UK providers are giving subsystems for the missiles. In October 2004, a more order was placed to equip the armoured infantry and formation reconnaissance pressures from 2007, instead of the Swingfire ATGW.

Javelin anti-tank missile orders and also deliveries

More than 25,000 missiles have been produced and more than 6,600 command start units have actually been marketed to the united state army and Marine Corps. Javelin has likewise been selected by Taiwan (60 launchers and also 360 missiles), Lithuania, Jordan (30 launchers and also 110 missiles), Australia (up to 92 systems and also 600 missiles), new Zealand (24 launchers, yielded in June 2006), Norway (90 launchers and also 526 missiles, shipment from 2006) and also Ireland.

In June 2004, the Czech Republic signed a letter of commitment (LOA) through the US government to carry out the Javelin system. In November 2004, the UAE requested the foreign military revenue (FMS) of 100 Javelin launchers and 1,000 missile rounds.

In June 2006, Oman requested the FMS that 30 launchers and also 250 missiles. In July 2006, Bahrain asked for the FMS the 60 launchers and also 180 missiles. Contracts because that the it is provided of the missile device to the UAE and Oman were inserted in July 2008. In October 2008, Taiwan asked for the sale of secondary 182 missile and also 20 launchers.

Six much more nations are considering deployment of the Javelin system. Canada has also been authorised to do such a purchase, however has not gone after the alternative to date. India has likewise proposed purchasing Javelin system through the FMS route and is meant to problem a letter of inquiry (LoR) to the united state Government. The LoR will incorporate procurement of third-generation anti-tank guided missile, along with transfer that technology. The final variety of Javelin equipment is however to be decided, however may run into thousands. France additionally ordered 260 missiles and 76 launchers for $69m.

Production that the Block 1 missile began in 2006. Successful qualification firings took place in January 2007.

In December 2008, the Javelin JV was awarded a contract to update 404 Block 0 command launch systems to Block 1 configuration.

In July 2009, the Javelin JV was awarded a five-year, $298.6m assistance contract for the Javelin anti-tank missile and also command launch unit. Under the contract, the US army is detailed with fix support, depot spares, training and also data. The JV received another contract from the US military in October 2009 for the production of the Javelin close combat weapon system. The $214m contract consists of the Javelin missile, CLUs, training and also field support.

The Javelin JV received a $176m contract in December 2009 from the UK to adjust of Defence for an ext than 1,300 Javelin missile rounds and related engineering support. The distribution of the missiles started in 2010.

In respectable 2010, the US army awarded a $309m contract come the JV to develop Javelin missile-firing systems for infantry troops. The first Javelin missile was fired native the common Remote work Weapon station II (CROWS II) placed on a Stryker IFV in December 2010.

Qatar has additionally requested for the FMS of 500 Javelin guided missiles in march 2013, follow to the Defense Security cooperation Agency.

The Javelin JV to be awarded a $176m contract in September 2013 to produce and also deliver 842 Block 1 missile rounds and also 120 CLUs because that the us army and also Marine Corps, in enhancement to the armed forces of Oman, Jordan and Indonesia.

Javelin JV inked a memorandum of knowledge (MOU) v Bharat Dynamics limited (BDL) for joint manufacturing of the anti-tank missile device in February 2020.

In the same month, the Estonian ministry of Defense and also Estonian Defense pressures took shipment of 128 anti-tank missiles from the us as part of a contract signed between the Estonian facility for Defense Investment and the us Department the Defense.

The Javelin weapon device is at this time in business with 18 allied nations.

Anti-armour missile

The Javelin system is composed of the CLU and the round. With a carry weight of 6.4kg, the CLU incorporates a passive target acquisition and fire control unit with incorporated day sight and thermal imaging capabilities.

The sight provides DRS Technologies’ second-generation heat imaging technology, based on the standard advanced Dewar assembly (SADA IIIA). The agency also offers the quieter, dual-opposed piston coolers because that the sight.

The gunner’s controls because that the missile device are on the CLU. The day vision is equipped through x 4 magnification and also the night sight with x 4 and also x 9 magnification optics.

The round consists of the Javelin missile and the ATK (Alliant Techsystems) launch pipe assembly. The range of the missile is 2,500m. Javelin is a fire-and-forget missile v lock-on before launch and also automatic self-guidance.

The missile is equipped with an imaging infrared seeker, i beg your pardon is based on a cadmium mercury telluride (CdHgTe) 64 x 64 staring focal airplane array in the 8 micron to 12 micron waveband. BAE solution Avionics is offering the infrared seekers because that the british army’s missiles.

The tandem warhead is fitted with two shaped charges: a precursor warhead to initiate explosive reactive armour and also a key warhead to pass through base armour. The propulsion device is a two-stage heavy propellant design, which provides a minimum acting soft launch.

The Block 1 missile upgrade consists of an boosted rocket motor the reduces time of flight, an enhanced warhead effective versus a greater range of targets, 2,500m of improved probability of struggle / kills and also improvements to the command beginning unit and software. In 2008, the boosted Block 1 missile full material relax was received and also the US military has stockpiled the very first production lots.

Other improvements include a digital display, software handling enhancement and remote view of the gunner display screen in one RS-170 standard video clip format. The future Javelin will have fragmentation because that anti-personnel effects and also a multi-purpose warhead (MPWH) through shaped charges because that armoured vehicles.

Missile mechanism operation

The mechanism is deployed and ready to fire in less than 30s and the reload time is much less than 20s. The missile is placed on the CLU and the gunner engages the target utilizing the vision on the CLU, by placing a curser box over the picture of the target. The gunner locks top top the automatic target tracker in the missile by sending out a lock-on-before-launch command come the missile. As soon as the mechanism is locked-on, the missile is all set to fire and the gunner does not bring out article launch tracking or missile guidance.

Unlike laser beam riding or conventional wire or fibre-optic cable guided missiles, Javelin is autonomously guided come the target after launch, leaving the gunner complimentary to reposition or reload automatically after launch.

A soft beginning ejects the missile indigenous the launch pipe to provide a low-recoil shoulder launch. The soft launch permits firing indigenous inside buildings or covered positions. As soon as the missile is clear, the larger propellant in the second stage is ignited and also the missile is driven towards the target. The weapon has two attack modes, direct or optimal attack.

The gunner selects direct assault mode to engage covered targets, bunkers, buildings and also helicopters.

The top strike mode is selected versus tanks, in which situation the Javelin climbs above and strikes under on the target to permeate the roof that the tank where there is the the very least armour protection.

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The missile is launched at one 18° elevation angle to with a peak altitude that 150m in top assault mode and also 50m in direct fire mode.